Fortified Wine

A wine to which a distilled spirit, usually brandy, is added. Many different styles of fortified wine have been developed, including Port, Sherry, Madeira, Marsala, Commandaria wine, and the aromatized wine vermouth.

Vermouth

An aromatized, fortified wine flavored with various botanicals (roots, barks,
flowers, seeds, herbs, and spices) and sometimes colored.

Each manufacturer adds a proprietary mixture of dry botanicals to the base wine, base wine plus spirit, or spirit only which may be redistilled before adding to the wine or unfermen ed wine must. After the wine is aromatized and fortified, the vermouth is sweetened with either cane sugar or caramelized sugar, depending on the style.

The modern versions of the beverage were first produced in the mid to late 1 8th century in Turin, Italy. While vermouth was traditionally used for medicinal purposes, Its true claim to fame is as an apéritif, with fashionable cafés in Turin serving it to guests around the clock. However, in the late 19th century it became popular with bartenders as a key ingredient in many classic cocktails that have survived to date such as the Martini, the Manhattan, the Rob Roy, and the Negroni.

Historically, there have been two main types of vermouth: sweet and dry. Responding to demand and competition, vermouth manufacturers have created additional styles, including extra-dry white, sweet white (bianco), red, amber (rosso), and rosé.

Cetegories

Italy is known for its wine production but it also has a vast production of other alcoholic beverages
which can be divided in three macro-categories:

Spirits

Liqueurs & Cordials

Fortified Wine

Aperitivi & Digestivi